The direct effects of energy efficiency on employment are based on two main drivers: investments in energy efficiency measures and related energy savings. While the former triggers a demand impulse in those industries producing relevant technology, the latter reduces the demand for energy products in the long-run. However, in an interrelated economy these impacts indirectly affect other sectors as well. In order to comprehensively trace the economic impacts of certain demand changes to all sectors affected, an Input-Output analysis is applied. It allows for calculating how gross value added (GVA) in selected sectors is affected by demand changes. GVA is converted into employment effects by using sector specific productivity coefficients, which link GVA to fulltime equivalent figures. In this analysis, data on energy savings from the ODYSSEE database are represented as demand changes in economic sectors which comprise fuels and combustibles. In which sectors investments are included depends on the nature of the energy efficiency measure implemented, e.g. the improvement of thermal insulation of buildings directly induces demand changes in the construction industry. Data on investments are provided by either policy evaluations from the MURE database or other studies.

As various studies have shown, net employment gains are likely to occur due to a shift in spending on energy consumption towards investing in energy efficiency measures. The industries providing the respective technology and materials usually show a higher labour intensity than the energy supply industry. More important, provided that the energy efficiency measures are cost-effective they increase disposable incomes, which can further stimulate job creation in the long-run.
Results for this indicator are given as full-time equivalent (FTE).

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  1. Mapping and analyses of the current and future (2020 - 2030) heating / cooling fuel deployment (fossil / renewables)

    Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI et al., 2016


  2. Estimating the macroeconomic benefits of energy efficiency policy and measures

    Ryan, Lisa; Campbell, Nina, 2014


  3. Energy Efficiency: Engine of Economic Growth in Canada - A Macroeconomic Modeling & Tax Revenue Impact Assessment

    Malone, Leslie; Howland, Jamie, 2014


  4. Assessing the Employment and Social Impact of Energy Efficiency Vol. 1

    Cambridge Econometrics, 2015


  5. National and Local Employment Impacts of Energy Efficiency Investment Programmes

    Wade, Joanne; Wiltshire, Victoria; Scrase, Ivan, 2000


  6. Energy Efficiency and Jobs: UK Issues and Case Studies

    Association for the Conservation of Energy, 2000


  7. Monitoring der KfW-Programme „Energieeffizient Sanieren“ und „Energieeffizient Bauen“ 2015

    Institut Wohnen und Umwelt GmbH; Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials IFAM, 2016


  8. The macroeconomic effects of ambitious energy efficiency policy in Germany – Combining bottom-up energy modelling with a non-equilibrium macroeconomic model

    Hartwig, Johannes; Kockat, Judith; Schade, Wolfgang; Braungardt, Sibylle , 2017


  9. The Macroeconomic Benefits of Energy Efficiency - The case for public action

    Holmes, Ingrid; Mohanty, Rohan, 2012


  10. Review of Costs and Benefits of Energy Savings - Task 1 Report "Energy Savings 2030"

    Sauter, Robert; Volkery, Axel, 2013


  11. The Economic Impacts and Macroeconomic Benefits of Energy Efficiency Programs in Oregon

    Whelan, Robert; Krebs, Tessa; Morgan, Tina, 2015


  12. Potenziale und volkswirtschaftliche Effekte einer ambitionierten Energieeffizienzstrategie für Deutschland

    Pehnt, Martin; Lutz, Christian; Seefeldt, Friedrich; Schlomann, Barbara; Wünsch, Marco; Lehr, Ulrike; Lambrecht, Udo; Fleiter, Tobias, 2009


  13. Energieeffizienz: Potenziale, volkswirtschaftliche Effekte und innovative Handlungs- und Förderfelder für die Nationale Klimaschutzinitiative. Endbericht

    Pehnt, Martin et al., 2011


  14. 20% by 2020? Economy-wide impacts of energy efficiency improvement in Germany

    Lehr, Ulrike et al., 2011


  15. Executive Summary of the Impact Assessment accompanying Directive 2012/27/EU on Energy Efficiency

    European Commission, 2016


  16. Energy substitution, efficiency, and the effects of carbon taxation: Evidence from China's building construction industry

    Liu, Hongxun; Lin, Boqiang, 2017


  17. The Relationship between Input Prices and Energy Intensity in Canadian Manufacturing Industries

    Gamtessa, Samuel, 2009


  18. Putting renewables and energy efficiency to work: How many jobs can the clean energy industry generate in the US?

    Wei, Max; Patadia, Shana; Kammen, Daniel M., 2010


  19. The effect of renewable energy on employment. The case of Asturias (Spain)

    Moreno, Blanca; Menéndez, Ana J.L., 2008


  20. The macro-level and sectoral impacts of Energy Efficiency policies

    Pollitt, Hector; Alexandri, Eva; Anagnostopoulos, Filippos; De Rose, Antonio; Farhangi, Cyrus; Hoste, Thijs; Markannen, Sanna; Theillard, Perrine; Vergez, Coralie; Voogt, Monique, 2017


  21. Measuring multiple impacts of low-carbon energy options in a green economy context

    DianaÜrge-Vorsatz, Agnes Kelemen, Sergio Tirado-Herrero, StefanThomas, Johannes Thema, Nora Mzavanadze, Dorothea Hauptstock, Felix Suerkemper, Jens Teubler, Mukesh Gupta, Souran Chatterjee, 2016


Employment effects 2010 - 2015 [FTE]